Original Research

Positive states in relation to entrepreneurship orientation

Meryll L. Shein, Freddie Crous, Johann M. Schepers
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology | Vol 36, No 2 | a931 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v36i2.931 | © 2010 Meryll L. Shein, Freddie Crous, Johann M. Schepers | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 30 August 2010 | Published: 03 December 2010

About the author(s)

Meryll L. Shein, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Freddie Crous, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Johann M. Schepers, University of Johannesburg

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Orientation: The main issue of this article concerns the construction and evaluation of an instrument measuring positive states and its relationship with entrepreneurship orientation.

Research purpose: The principal objective of the study was the construction of a normative scale to measure the positive states associated with appreciative ability and to relate it to a scale of entrepreneurial orientation. A secondary objective was to determine whether there was a statistically significant relationship between the measures of the constructs and the biographical variables of gender and culture.

Motivation: As appreciative ability is a relatively new construct and no instrument exists for measuring the positive states emanating from this construct, it was decided to develop such an instrument and to relate it to entrepreneurship orientation.

Research design, approach and method: The primary data were obtained by means of the newly designed instrument, the Positive States Questionnaire and the Entrepreneurship Orientation Questionnaire. A convenience sample of 210 second year commerce students was drawn.

Main findings: From a principal factor analysis applied to the two instruments, two factors each were obtained. A significantly high correlation was found, indicating a strong relationship between entrepreneurship orientation and the positive states. No significant differences were found between gender or population in the entrepreneurship orientation and positive states measures.

Practical/managerial implications: The study produced an instrument with highly acceptable metrical properties which may be used in future studies and for entrepreneurship development.

Contribution/value-add: The results of the study suggest that positive states are invaluable attributes for the entrepreneur and should be explored in the assessment and development of entrepreneurs.


appreciative ability; conviction that one’s actions matter; irrepressible resilience; persistence; tolerance for ambiguity


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