The Job Demands–Resources model: Challenges for future research

Evangelia Demerouti, Arnold B. Bakker
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology | Vol 37, No 2 | a974 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v37i2.974 | © 2011 Evangelia Demerouti, Arnold B. Bakker | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 21 February 2011 | Published: 23 May 2011

About the author(s)

Evangelia Demerouti, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
Arnold B. Bakker, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands


Motivation: The motivation of this overview is to present the state of the art of Job Demands–Resources (JD–R) model whilst integrating the various contributions to the special issue.

Research purpose: To provide an overview of the JD–R model, which incorporates many possible working conditions and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well-being. Moreover, the studies of the special issue were introduced.

Research design: Qualitative and quantitative studies on the JD–R model were reviewed to enlighten the health and motivational processes suggested by the model.

Main findings: Next to the confirmation of the two suggested processes of the JD–R model, the studies of the special issue showed that the model can be used to predict work-place bullying, incidences of upper respiratory track infection, work-based identity, and early retirement intentions. Moreover, whilst psychological safety climate could be considered as a hypothetical precursor of job demands and resources, compassion satisfaction moderated the health process of the model.

Contribution/value-add: The findings of previous studies and the studies of the special issue were integrated in the JD–R model that can be used to predict well-being and performance at work. New avenues for future research were suggested.

Practical/managerial implications: The JD–R model is a framework that can be used for organisations to improve employee health and motivation, whilst simultaneously improving various organisational outcomes.


JD-R Model; bullying; quantitative; qualitative; employee health


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